The goal of Dr. Caldwell’s research is to understand the mechanisms that control retinal microvascular growth, permeability barrier function and blood flow and how they are altered in disease. Her group has shown previously that blockade of the superoxide generating enzyme NOX 2 is protective against retinal vascular inflammation, diabetic retinopathy and proliferative neovascular disease. Their current work explores of the pathophysiological actions of a downstream target of NOX2, the urea and ornithine generating metalloenzyme arginase. Their experiments using knockout mice, cultured cells and arginase inhibitors in ocular disease models have shown that dysregulation of the arginase pathway plays an important role in neurovascular dysfunction and injury. These findings have significant implications for the development of new therapies for diabetic retinopathy, retinopathy of prematurity and other forms of ischemic retinopathy.